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Monday, August 4, 2014

MTBR,MTBF and MTTR Concept and Calculation

MTBF and MTTR Concept and Calculation

By using the breakdown statistics you can analyze the causes of a particular breakdown more closely. The focus in this case is on the distribution of duration of the various breakdowns or repairs, and on how these were caused. The aim of these analyses is to find out the cause behind a short or long breakdown period, or the period between two consecutive breakdowns. An indicator in the first screen of the notification indicates that a malfunction report or a maintenance request contains a machine breakdown.
Key Figures for Machine Breakdowns
We distinguish between the following:
  • Number of machine breakdowns reported
  • Number of actual machine breakdowns
The reported breakdowns are important from a business point of view, whereas the actual breakdowns are of interest from a technical viewpoint.
There are three cases which are important for the breakdown analysis. These are represented in the following diagram, which displays two reported breakdowns in each case.

Key Figures for Downtime
The key figures for downtime comprise the following figures:
  • Downtime entered/Time To Repair
  • Mean Time To Repair
The average duration of a machine breakdown, MTTR (Mean Time To Repair), is calculated from the individual history of a piece of equipment. This gives us the following formula:

The key figure MTTR is calculated in hours.

First breakdown 10 hours
Second breakdown 05 hours
Number of breakdowns 02
MTTR = 10 + 5 / 2 = 7.5 hours

To calculate the key figure Mean Time To Repair, in the breakdown analysis (information structure S070) the effective breakdowns and the number of effective breakdowns are taken into account. In all other analyses (and the underlying information structures) the noted breakdown duration and the number of noted breakdowns are taken into account.
Key Figures for Duration Between Machine Breakdowns
The key figures for the duration between machine breakdowns comprise the following ratios:
  • Time Between Repair
  • Average Time Between Repair
The average duration between two machine breakdowns, MTBR for short (Average Time between Repair), is calculated from the individual history of the equipment. This gives the following formula:

The key figure MTBR is calculated in hours.
The following example shows how the MTBR is calculated:

Acquisition date of pump A 01/01/94
First breakdown 01/10/94
Downtime 10 hours
Second breakdown 01/20/94
Downtime 5 hours
Number of breakdowns 2
MTBR = (19 * 24 - 10) / 2 or X + Y (St) / 2
= (456 - 10) / 2 or (216 + 240 - 10) / 2
= 223 hours

When calculating the key figure Mean Time between Repair, only the start-up date can be taken into account if the indicator Start-up was set in the master data for equipment or functional locations. If the indicator was not set then the end date of the first malfunction message will be taken into account. In this case, the first malfunction message will not be used when calculating the key figure MTBR (refer to the following illustration).


Friday, April 25, 2014

SAP Quiz Links

Please check below link for SAP Quiz.


Monday, February 17, 2014

SAP Degree of Processing on Gantt Chart

SAP PS Degree of Processing on Gantt Chart

While creating the activities we have to give the normal duration, Work center and calculation key as 2 must be selected as shown below:

The project builder view will be as below

Gantt chart before confirmation:

     To view the % of processing in the chart, click on
button and in planning board select Date bar text tab and maintain fields as below.

Save the settings.
Confirm Activities as per your requirement
The following screen will appear where we have to fill processing percentage of work or actual hours of work.

Your Gantt Chart will represent the value as shown below:


Thursday, May 2, 2013

PR/PO Release Strategy re determine / Retrigger

Need of PR/PO release re determine depend on business requirement of individual companies.

 Suppose there are 2 level strategy assigned to Purchase Group

Level                   Value                       Pur Grup

A1                   0 – 1000 INR                P30              

A2                   > 10000 INR                  P30

 Buyer has created PO with value 600 Rs and got fully released now buyer wish to change PO price ideally it should go to approval again.

Here if the PO value crosses the band of 0-1000 INR it would surely go to re release
In some cases it is assumed that buyer already got approval for 1000 INR   while he has used only 600 INR out of it, so there is no need to re approval.

This setting can be achieved for both indicator i.e. Blocked or Released.

For indicator 3- release strategy would be re determine if there will be new release strategy, all value addition or subtraction changes would have no effect on existing release strategy.
 For indicator 6 – If there is change in value or new strategy or output taken system would re determine or cancel all release level in existing release strategy it self.
rest all indicators can be used as per purpose.


Monday, April 22, 2013

Type of Invoices

Meaning of different type of invoices, usage and difference between Performa invoice, commercial invoice and excise Invoice mentioned below.

Performa Invoice

In foreign trade, a pro forma invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to provide specified goods to the buyer at specific prices. It is often used to declare value for customs. It is not a true invoice, because the seller does not record a proforma invoice as an accounts receivable and the buyer does not record a pro forma invoice as an accounts payable. A pro forma invoice is not issued by the seller until the seller and buyer have agreed to the terms of the order. In few cases, pro forma invoice is issued for obtaining advance payments from buyer, either for start of production or for security of the goods produced.

Performa invoice also refer as Predict Invoice or Dummy Invoice , after both parties agree upon a deal, Performa invoice serves the purpose of informing the prospective customer all about the form and content of the actual invoice that follows suit. Actually, importer makes a request for such a document from the exporter that contains every detail about the transaction that is to take place such as name of the cargo, unit price, specification, pricing, total value, terms of payment.
It has to be remembered that Performa invoice is not final or formal, and it cannot be used for collection of money. The amount and pricing mentioned in Performa invoice are always subject to change, and so mentioned in the Proforma invoice. This implies that Performa invoice is at best estimation in nature and a final invoice, called commercial invoice always gets issued after Performa invoice.

 The three main purposes served of issuing Proforma invoice are below..

• It allows buyer to apply for import license and also for foreign exchange to make payment to the seller or exporter.
• It acts as a confirmation of the deal that takes place after the buyer confirms receipt of Proforma invoice.
• It is an estimate that reveals all information regarding cargo and its pricing as well as pricing of the items to be supplied.
This  is a common phenomenon in India wherein the transfer of Stock from one locations to another locations is done with having documentation as Proforma Invoice.
Proforma Invoice is know as 'Dummy Invoice' and the reason why this is created while doing a STO is because in India when you transfer goods between your own plants also you need to pay excise duty and on basis of proforma invoice you can calculate Excise duty.

Commercial Invoice
Prepared after the sale takes place, the commercial invoice is the final bill from the exporter to the buyer that conforms in all respects to the agreement. It could have the exact terms of the pro forma invoice first offered, or it could differ in those terms that were the result of final negotiations. Commercial invoices are also used by governments to determine the true value of goods for assessing Customs duties, examining goods and gathering statistics. Additionally, many countries use commercial invoices to control imports. It is critical for the exporter to check with the buyer the type of information that must be included in the commercial invoice in order to clear Customs in the buyer's country. Here are few key areas to consider when producing a commercial invoice.
 It is actual bill of the transaction that takes place. It is issued by the seller to the buyer, and carries all details about the prices of the items supplied along with relevant taxes and customs being charged from the buyer. In most cases, the details contained in a commercial invoice are same as that in a Proforma invoice, but sometimes there are changes that reflect changes in the rates of cargo and customs. It is commercial invoice that is used by a government to assess exact duties to be collected from the buyer. These invoices are also used by many countries as a proof so as to keep a check on imports. Any seller or exporter must check with the importer as to what are exact requirements that need to be included in the commercial invoice
Commercial Invoice contains information more specific to customer (Pricing, Tax, Payment terms), which becomes a part of receivables.
For Commercial Invoice, there is no need for advance declaration of the Number Ranges for the Document.
Excise Invoice
Excise Invoice contains information related to excise duties which has to be payed to the Excise authorities and also other statutory requirements .
For Excise Invoices, every manufacturing company has to declare the Number ranges (Per Excise Group/Series Group) to the excise authorities beginining of the year.
Nowadays most of the businesses are directing toward common (Commercial *** Excise Invoice) printout , though in SAP its still a separate transaction for posting




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